CITY

24Nov
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pécs oldala

Értékleltár (letölthető dokumentumok)

In the Middle ages Pécs served as the seat of the Diocese of Pécs as well as the centre of Baranya County and at the same time was an economic, cultural and trade centre of the southern Transdanubian region. Sources describing the city mention the vineyards that yielded excellent wines and the fact that the location of the town never failed to charm its visitors. It is not by chance that in Turkish times the city was often compared to the Gardens of Semiramis, and acquired the name Garden of Irem in the course of the centuries. The town managed to keep its significant role in Turkish times as well: it became the seat of the Pécs sanjak as well as the residence of the Pasha of Kanizsa, who controlled the south of Transdanubia from here.
The inner castle of Pécs around the bishop’s palace and the cathedral was built as early as the Middle Ages, with an ashlar wall encircling the city. The 15th century saw the construction of the so-called barbican, the bastion that served to defend the western castle gate, and a roundel guarding the south-western corner. These however proved to be insufficient defensive structures and the town fell without a single stroke of a sword. In 1543. The defending army fled; the civil population stayed put and could keep the possession of their houses. as a result of this the medieval layout and Christian characteristics of the town persisted throughout the time of the Turkish occupation, but due to the rising number of new Muslim inhabitants the original traits of the settlement came to be gradually less perceivable.
The ensuing twenty-three years represented the hardest time for Pécs in the Turkish period. The city became a frontier castle, and its Ottoman holders continuously fought for their lives with the soldiers of the island district. In 1557 the troops of Gergely Farkasich, captain of the island stormed and raided the city: a consequence of this was that the Christian populace was moved to the area outside the town walls. Their place was taken up by Ottoman settlers who filled up the suburban parts of Buda and the island as well, creating a peculiar type of coexistence between old and new townspeople. A more peaceful period came after 1566: it was in these decades that the Muslim religious and public buildings were erected. The course of development was halted by the 1664 siege of Miklós Zrínyi; most of the city was devastated by fire and the inner castle was also severely damaged. There is not much data surviving from the final twenty years but accounts penned after the 1686 recapture describe a ruinous and dilapidated settlement. In spite of the two sieges Pécs has kept its status as the Hungarian town richest in Ottoman architectural monuments and the surviving mosques continue to define its townscape.
In 1663 Evliya Çelebi enumerated 17 Muslim places of prayer and recent research has corroborated the famous traveller’s accounts. Some were modest constructions but there may have been up to ten more sumptuous, tindomed mosques. Of these, a few stood on the foundations of certain medieval Christian churches, but there is evidence of six buildings erected on completely new foundations, with minarets accompanying most of them. The first place of prayer was Suleyman’s mosque transformed from the cathedral but this was scarcely visited and by the 17th century came to be used as a warehouse. Topping its south-western tower there was a wooden minaret and a17th-century Arabic inscription is still visible on the wall of the stairs leading up to it. The early period of construction also included the building of Kasim Pasha’s first mosque, transformed from the former Church of Saint Bartholomew that stood in the main square of the town: this was completely rebuilt after the collapse of the original church, before 1566. This mosque came to house the grave of Mehmet, Sultan Suleyman’s Chancellor, and the location soon became a place of pilgrimage for Muslims. Memi pasha’s mosque, which unfortunately did not survive the centuries, was erected on the grounds of the Franciscan church; the partial remains of Ferhad Pasha’s mosque in Kazinczy Street were constructed before 1579 and stood next to a monastery for Halveti dervishes. The development of the suburbs later created the demand for religious buildings to serve the needs of Muslim settlers. in the suburbs of Buda a large building known as the leather tanner’s mosque was completed as early as 1620; sections of its walls are still visible incorporated in the structure of the Ágoston Square church. It was around 1630 that the island suburb saw the finishing works of Yakovali Hasan Pasha’s mosque, which is the most perfectly preserved Ottoman architectural monument in contemporary Hungary. The high ranks and titles of the founders and the sheer number of these places of prayer indicate that Pécs was indeed one of the most important Ottoman cities during the times of the Turkish occupation. The present townscape of Pécs, which is still markedly Turkish in its atmosphere, derives from the numerous religious and welfare buildings. Types of these are the mosque described above, monasteries, maktabs providing elementary education and madrasa, colleges for advanced studies, as well as baths that served to refresh body and mind, public drinking fountains, and pool fountains. These water drips, fountains, and wellhouses were located at several points of the city; one of them continued to be used well into the 20th century.
During the Turkish occupation the town developed into a significant place of Muslim pilgrimage. The destinations were the tombs of Idris Baba, the highly revered Bektashi dervish and the formerly mentioned Nisanji Mehmed was also laid to rest here. An important element in the reputation of Pécs was the Ottoman tradition that stated this was the location of the tomb of Plato, the Hellenistic philosopher who was held in high esteem by Muslims as well. The origin of this idea may have been the fact that Pécs was widely known for its chapter school among conquering Turks, who linked Plato’s person to this „academy”.
Financed by pious votive donations and estate s, eleven maktabs and five madrasas operated in Pécs in the 17th century. These are significant numbers, as only Buda and Eger boasted with more in the occupied territories. Due to this fact, Pécs has a well-established status as a major educational centre in the period of the Turkish occupation. Besides schools, monasteries also served as hubs of education. Pécs was studded with the monasteries of ascetic Halveti and more tolerant Islamic Bektashi dervishes. Adjacent to these there often were schools and soup kitchens, which made them highly popular among locals. It was perhaps Bektashi dervishes who lived in the monastery located on Tettye hill over Pécs: the building was transformed from the summer palace of György Szatmáry, bishop of Pécs. Its ruins are a popular hiking destination for present-day visitors.

Information


Tourinform Pécs
Tel.:+36/72/213-315, +36/72/511-232
7621 Pécs, Széchenyi tér 7.
www.iranypecs.hu
email:pecs@tourinform.hu, info@iranypecs.hu

Gastronomy


Restaurant Aranygaluska
Tel.:+36/72/336-153
7621 Pécs, Irgalmasok u. 5.
email:www.aranygaluska.hu
Confectionery Nosztalgia
Tel.:+36/20/665-6889
7621 Pécs, Kossuth tér 5.
Restaurant Áfium
Tel.:+36/72/511-434
7621 Pécs, Irgalmasok utcája 2.
Restaurant Bacchus Pince
7621 Pécs, Irgalmasok utcája 6/1.
email:info@bacchus.restaurantpecs.com
Snack Bar Jókai
Tel.:+36/20/360-7337
7621 Pécs, Jókai tér 6.
www.jokaibisztro.hu
Restaurant and Pizzeria Elefántos
Tel.:+36/72/216-055
7621 Pécs, Jókai u. 6.
www.elefantos.hu
Artisan Brasserie Egylet & Snack Bar Balkán
Tel.:+36/20/350-8919
7621 Pécs Ferencesek utcája 32.
www.facebook.com/egylet
email:egyletpecs@gmail.com, balkanbisztro@gmail.com
Restaurant Kapucíner
Tel.:+36/30/711-2634
7621 Pécs, Ferencesek utcája 41.
Restaurant Minaret
Tel.:+36/72/311-338
7621 Pécs, Ferencesek utcája 35.
Inn Krúdy
Tel.:+36/72/525-576
7621 Pécs, Ferencesek utcája 32.
Restaurant Pezsgőház
Tel.:+36/72/522-599
7621 Pécs, Szent István tér 2.
Dóm Café & Restaurant
Tel.:+36/72/213-019
7621 Pécs, Király u. 3.
Replay Café Restaurant & Churrascaria
Tel.:+36/72/210-531
7624 Pécs, Király utca 4.
www.replaycafepecs.hu
Bellagio Ristorante
Tel.:+36/72/224-470
7621 Pécs, Király u. 19.
www.bellagioristorante.hu
Havanna Café
Tel.:+36/72/215-678
7621 Pécs, Király utca 22.
Hotel Palatinus Restaurant
Tel.:+36/72/889-444
7621 Pécs, Király utca 5.
www.danubiushotels.hu
Fregatt Arizona Pub
Tel.:+36/72/511-068
7621 Pécs, Király u. 21.
Snack Bar Nappali
Tel.:+36/30/277-0733
7621 Pécs, Király utca 23-25.
Cooltour Café
Tel.:+36/70/366-6981
7621 Pécs, Király u. 26.
www.cooltourcafe.hu
Blöff Café
Tel.:+36/72/950-947
7621 Pécs, Színház tér 2.
István Pince
Tel.:+36/72/310-473
7621 Pécs, Kazinczy u. 1.
Restaurant Rundó
Tel.:+36/72/214-709
7621 Pécs, Citrom utca 16.
www.rundo.hu
Restaurant Oliva
Tel.:+36/72/336-704
7621 Pécs, Citrom utca 12.
www.olivaetterem.eu
Brasserie and Wine Bar Tramini
Tel.:+36/72/222-829
7621 Pécs, Citrom utca 7.
Restaurant Aranykacsa
Tel.:+36/72/518-860
7621 Pécs, Teréz u. 4.
www.aranykacsa.hu
Restaurant TEX-MEX
Tel.:+36/72/215-427, +36/20/393-8790
7621 Pécs, Teréz utca 10.
www.tex-mex.hu
Brasserie Gambrinus
Tel.:+36/30/223-0636
7621 Pécs, Teréz u. 17.
Restaurant Cellárium
Tel.:+36/72/314-453
7621 Pécs, Hunyadi u. 2.
www.cellariumetterem.hu
Caflisch Café
Tel.:+36/70/542-8445
7621 Pécs, Király utca 32.
Confectionery Capri
Tel.:Tel.: +36/72/510-163
7622 Pécs Citrom u. 7.
www.capricukraszda.hu
Confectionery Mecsek
Tel.:+36/72/315-444
7621 Pécs, Széchenyi tér 16.
Confectionery Virág
Tel.:+36/72/222-223, +36/20/289-0490
7621 Pécs, Széchenyi tér 6.
Café Paulus
Tel.:+36/72/503-636
7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6.
www.pauluscafe.hu

Sights


Mosque of Qasim Pasha
Bath of Memi Pasha
Barbakán „Bastion”
Cathedral of Saint Peter and Paul
Mosque of Yakovali Hassan Pasha
Tomb of Idrisz Baba
Zsolnay Cultural Quarter Early Christian Tombs Museum Street

Accommodations


Hotel Arkadia
Tel.:+36/72/512-550
7621 Pécs, Hunyadi János utca 1.
www.hotelarkadia.hu
email:info@hotelarkadiapecs.hu
Hotel Főnix
Tel.:+36/72/311-680
7621 Pécs, Hunyadi u. 2.
www.fonixhotel.com
email:sales@fonixhotel.com
Hotel Palatinus City Center***
Tel.:+36/72/889-400
7621 Pécs, Király utca 5.
www.danubiushotels.hu
email:pecs.reservation@danubiushotels.com
Inn Aranyhajó
Tel.:+36/72/210-685, +36/20/249-0680
7621 Pécs, Király u. 3.
www.aranyhajo.hu
email:hotel@aranyhajo.hu
Hotel Millennium****
Tel.:+36/72/512-222
7625 Pécs, Kálvária utca 58.
www.hotelmillennium.hu
email:info@hotelmillennium.hu
Boutique Hotel Sopianae Pécs
Tel.:+36/72/517-770
7621 Pécs, Felsőmalom u. 24.
www.hotelsopianae.hu
email:info@hotelsopianae.hu
Motel Diána Pécs
Tel.:+36/72/333-373, +36/72/328-594
7621 Pécs, Tímár u. 4/a
www.hoteldiana.hu
email:info@hoteldiana.hu
Hotel Barbakán Pécs
Tel.:+36/72/517-692
7624 Pécs, Bartók Béla u. 10.
www.barbakanhotel.hu
email:info@barbakanhotel.hu
Hotel Kálvária Rácz Pécs
Tel.:+36/72/510-067
7625 Pécs, Kálvária utca 6.
www.kalvaria-raczhotel.hu
email:kalvaria-raczhotel@t-online.hu
Apartment Hotel Centrum Pécs
Tel.:+36/72/251-184, +36/30/227-5961
7624 Pécs, Damjanich János u. 11.
www.apartmanhotelpecs.hu
email:centrum@apartmanhotelpecs.hu
Hotel Corso
Tel.:+36/72/421-900
7626 Pécs, Koller u. 8.
www.corsohotel.hu
email:reception@corsohotel.hu